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罗马尼亚将终止其欧盟内部双边投资条约

2017年03月31日 19:31 来源:国际经济法评论

   编者按:

   欧盟成员国之间共签订有190来个所谓“欧盟内部双边投资条约”,这些条约由于欧盟的一体化进程而逐渐遭受到合法性质疑。欧盟委员会对基于此类条约的投资仲裁管辖权表示了坚决的反对,并在the Eastern Sugar v. Czech等仲裁案件以及不同场合多次强调这类协定因违反欧盟法而应当被尽快废除。

   按照欧盟委员会的观点,欧盟内部双边投资条约与欧盟单一市场存在重叠和冲突。它仅向特定当事国投资者提供保护,而不是一体适用所有成员方投资者,因而特定当事国投资者享有更优惠待遇并构成对其他成员国投资者的歧视。而且,欧盟内部双边投资条约所提供的平行的仲裁机制构成一种额外的非法国家援助,并与欧盟条约第19条所规定的欧盟法院专属管辖权产生冲突。

   尽管存在反对欧盟委员会的不同观点,目前来看,越来越多的欧盟成员国迫于压力逐步开始妥协并选择合作。

    罗马尼亚共签署有22个欧盟内部双边投资条约,在ICSID被诉9起投资仲裁案件,可能源于欧盟委员会在Micula v. Romania等案件中所施加的压力,近期该国表示将终止其全部欧盟内部双边投资条约。这一决定不仅将影响其他欧盟成员国的态度,也将会对投资者在罗马尼亚的投资可能受到的保护水平产生影响。

    以下为部分相关背景资料和分析文章标题,有兴趣的读者可据此查阅:

  1. The European Commission’s Opposition To Intra-EU BITs And Its Impact On Investment Arbitration

  2. Termination of BITs and Sunset Clauses – What Can Investors in Poland Expect?

  3. The End of Intra-EU BITs: Fait Accompli or Another Way Out?

    另摘录近期的一篇英文报道并翻译如下:

    CLIENT ALERT:Romania set to terminate its intra-EU BITs

    客户提醒:罗马尼亚将终止其欧盟内部双边投资条约

    On 8 March 2017, the Romanian Parliament approved and referred for promulgation to the Romanian President a law approving the termination of the 22 bilateral investment treaties that Romania currently has in place with other Member States of the European Union (the “intra-EU BITs”).

   2017年3月8日,罗马尼亚议会通过并提交罗马尼亚总统颁布一项法律,批准终止罗马尼亚目前与欧盟其他成员国达成的22项双边投资条约(“欧盟内部双边投资条约” )。

    Romania will be the third country to terminate its intra-EU BITs, following Italy in 2012 and Ireland in 2013. According to the Romanian Government’s explanatory memorandum, the law approves the termination of intra-EU BITs because they are “outdated” and no longer necessary in a single market of 28 EU Member States.

    罗马尼亚将是2012年意大利和2013年之后第三个宣布终止欧盟内部双边投资条约的国家。根据罗马尼亚政府的解释性备忘录,法律批准终止欧盟内部双边投资条约,因为它们已经“过时”,且在28个欧盟成员国组成的单一市场中不再有存在必要。

    The European Commission has exerted considerable pressure on EU Member States to terminate intra-EU BITs, on the basis that they conflict with EU law and result in illegal state aid. On 18 June 2015, the European Commission initiated infringement proceedings against five Member States (Austria, the Netherlands, Romania, Slovakia and Sweden) requesting them to terminate intra-EU BITs. The Court of Justice of the European Union is expected to rule on the compatibility of intra-EU BITs with EU law later in 2017, following a request for a preliminary ruling by the Federal Court of Justice of Germany.

    为终止欧盟内部双边投资条约,欧盟委员会对欧盟成员国施加了相当大的压力,因为它们与欧盟法律相抵触并且导致不合法的国家援助。2015年6月18日,欧盟委员会针对五个成员国(奥地利,荷兰,罗马尼亚,斯洛伐克和瑞典)发起侵权诉讼,要求他们终止欧盟内部双边投资条约。欧盟法院预计将在处理德国联邦法院提出初步裁决请求后,于2017年晚些时候裁定欧盟内部双边投资条约与欧盟法律的兼容性。

    Following Romania’s decision, each treaty will be terminated in accordance with its own terms. Notably, some of Romania’s intra-EU BITs contain “sunset clauses”, which provide for continuing effect up to 10 or 20 years after their termination. EU investors operating in Romania and currently protected by an intra-EU BIT normally will have some time to make the necessary arrangements to protect their investments. However, both the European Commission and some Member States have expressed their intention to neutralise sunset clauses, by removing these provisions prior to the denunciation of the treaty, in order to terminate intra-EU BITs with an immediate effect.

    根据罗马尼亚的决定,每个条约将按照自己的条件终止。值得注意的是,罗马尼亚的欧盟内部双边投资条约中包含“日落条款”,其规定在终止后的10年或20年内将继续有效。目前受到欧盟内部双边投资条约保护的在罗马尼亚经营的欧盟投资者,正常情况下将有一段时间进行必要的安排以保护投资。但是,欧盟委员会和一些会员国都表示打算在退出条约之前先删除这些条款,以便立即终止欧盟内双边投资条约。

   If an intra-EU BIT does not provide for a special termination clause, then Article 56(2) of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties provides that the BIT may be terminated only twelve months after Romania has notified the other EU Member State of its intention to denounce the BIT between them.

    如果欧盟内部的双边投资条约没有规定特别终止条款,则根据“维也纳条约法公约”第56(2)条规定,只有在罗马尼亚向另一欧盟成员国发出通知十二个月后,他们之间的双边投资条约方得终止。

    In light of these developments, EU investors operating in Romania will presumably consider restructuring their investments through a non-EU country that has a BIT with Romania, in order to maintain the same level of investment protection.

    鉴于这些新情况,在罗马尼亚经营的欧盟投资者可能需要考虑通过一个与罗马尼亚签订有双边投资协定的非欧盟国家来重组其投资,以保持相同的投资保护水平。

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